Cardiovascular disease is a social health issue
Problem number 1. Primary disease leading to gradual or sudden
coronary artery occlusion is atherosclerosis. It is considered that
atherosclerosis is a metabolic disease with multifactorial etiology in which
various genetic and acquired factors are involved. Lately most are
blames abnormal lipid metabolism and increased intake of saturated fat
fatty acids – especially if genetic supersaturated
The main changes in atherosclerosis are due to the development of
fibrous plaques or thicknesses, called atoms, in the inner layer
of the intima or media of the coronary arteries
atheromatosis of the coronary arteries results in calcification,
haemorrhage, ulceration and intravascular thrombosis. The result can be
partial or complete occlusion of the blood vessel – unstable angina pectoris
or stroke, or the plaque can often be destabilized by
hemodynamically significant stenosis.
In addition to the underlying atherosclerotic process in
coronary artery disease (CAD) outbreaks, numerous discovered
risk factors contributing to accelerated development of atherosclerosis and
its occurrence. The risk factors for the occurrence of CAD are defined as
characteristic signs or symptoms associated with an increased incidence
in the last 20-30 years a number of publications in the world indicate
of a number of risk factors for CAD, but not all have the same significance
on the emergence of CAD (15)
Recent reports divide a large number of risk factors into:
- Modifying risk factors – lifestyle, smoking,
hyperlipidemia, diabetes, obesity, physical activity;
- Non-modifiable risk factors – age, gender and family personal
history of CAD or other atherosclerotic vascular disease at an early age
for men younger than 55 and for women younger than 65.
multifactoriality in the development of CAD is considered to be the risk of CAD
significantly reduced by reduction of modifying risk factors. Estrogen depletion is an additional risk factor for women in
menopause, which increases the incidence of CAD in postmenopausal
due to a combination of risk factors that act synergistically for
the risk of developing CAD is important to identify and treat
modifying risk factors, especially hyperlipidemia as a major risk-
When a person develops a symptom of CAD or CAD
to other atherosclerotic disease, peripheral or central, modifying
risk factors continue to lead to progressive deterioration
disease and prognosis. Patients who show symptoms of CAD have a high
risk for further progression of the disease, which is why they are needed
lifestyle intervention, even drug-directed therapy
modifying risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension
blood pressure in order to prevent further development of CAD. Screening
Patients at risk of CAD play a particularly important role in both primary and secondary
secondary prevention of CAD. Prevention priority has:
Patients with proven CAD or other atherosclerotic disease;
Healthy people who are at high risk for CAD or other atherosclerotic diseases
diseases due to a combination of risk factors: smoking, increased blood pressure
- Patients at particularly high risk for CAD or who have a history of wound
occurrence of CAD;
- Other features encountered in routine clinical practice.
In primary and secondary prevention of CAD recommendations are
aimed at changing lifestyle, healing
hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other risk-
Factors.High-risk patients and patients with manifest CAD should
first change the lifestyle of smoking cessation, by choosing
healthy foods, with foods with less saturated fat and cholesterol, trying to
maintain weight and increase physical activity. (30)
Significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease
Hyperlipidemia – Hyperlipidemia – Dislipidemia
lipid ratio is considered to be a major risk factor for the occurrence of CAD due to
as more recent research is aimed at detecting abnormalities of
lipid metabolism which has a direct role in the pathophysiology of
Atherosclerosis. The risk of CAD increases progressively with increasing
LDL level decreases with higher HDL values. That’s because
that LDL cholesterol and low VLDL values enter the artery
Wall, chemically modified by oxidation, remain in the wall
causing atherosclerosis. Therefore the HDL / LDL ratio is good
CAD risk marker
Pay attention to the symptoms because some of them are not as harmless as they seem, so if you do, see a cardiologist. Here are the symptoms that indicate cardiovascular disease and what factors increase the risk of them.
Chest pain indicates that something is wrong and you need to have control. Although the heart is not the only cause of this pain, it is best to see a doctor and get rid of your doubts.
Pain related to heart disease also has associated symptoms such as a feeling of heaviness and pressure in the chest, pain that spreads to the back, jaw, shoulders and hands. This pain usually lasts for a few minutes and recurs several times in a short period of time. The pain is followed by short breathing, sweating, dizziness and nausea.
High blood pressure
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart failure. He is also called a silent killer because he has no symptoms suggesting something is wrong with your blood pressure unless you measure it. For these reasons, it is advisable to monitor your blood pressure regularly.
If this happens to you often, it may indicate arrhythmia or coronary artery disease.
Smokers are more likely to have heart disease, so it is advisable to visit a doctor regularly.
Increased cholesterol levels indicate that fats have accumulated in the blood arteries, and such a condition is very risky. You can regulate your cholesterol levels through diet or, ultimately, with medications.
Chronic kidney disease
If your kidneys are not working properly, there is a risk of heart disease.
Someone already had similar illnesses in the family
Some heart diseases are hereditary. If someone in the family already has a heart disease, your doctor may determine the risk level for you.
Peripheral artery disease
Peripheral artery disease is a narrowing of the peripheral arteries, especially the legs. It is similar to coronary artery disease and it is often the case that the person has both diseases. Smoking, high blood pressure, cholesterol and diabetes increase the risk of the disease. Changes in peripheral arteries cause narrowing, and in the end, clogging the arteries.
Reduced physical activity
For the body and heart to function properly, you need to be physically active. Exercise has many benefits for the whole body, so any physical activity is recommended at least twice a week. The modern lifestyle has reduced this activity to a minimum, which is what creates a huge risk of heart disease.
The most dangerous kilos are those accumulated around the abdomen. The fats in that section indicate that all organs are in danger, and most of all the heart. To function properly and reduce the risk of heart disease, a proper and healthy diet is needed.
Read also what foods help prevent stroke.